the peoples living in Etruria and other areas of historical Italy. Using male nudity and female exposure among the Gauls shows the survival of early

customsand taboos in historicaltimes.
The heavy and often painful emotions of pleasure,
pain, shock, or shame that the sight of the nakedbody

arouseswere used by artistsin many means. Nakedness
was, and still is, always something particular. It can
signify divinity, or reveal human helplessness. Most
Remarkable is the magic of the erect male genitals,
which accounts for the survival of the apotropaic
Picture of the phallus into Classical times, on the herm
and the satyr and in Old Comedy.
I have tried to illustrate some aspects of the portrayal of nakedness,partial and entire,for men
and for women, in Greece, and in the barbarian
world; to interpret some of the early accounts, and
to “read”some of the pictures, in the Greek artistic
language, in addition to in some very queer barbariandialects. There are obviously problems of translation,
Frequently involving our own understandingof the naked
the painterZeuxis,was describedby Lucian.Zeuxis:see
Robertson413, 488. Barbarianprisonerson Roman
148 Suprans. 3, 9-12, 91. S. Freud,A GeneralIntroduction

to Psychoanalysis(orig. English publ. 1920; rev., repr. Fresh
York 1964) 160: “The number of things which are repre-

in dreamsis notgreat. The humanbody
as a whole, parents,kids,brothersand sisters,birth,
Departure, nakedness…. ” See also P. Slater, The Gloryof Hera

Suprans.9-10, 38. AmongrecentstudiesseeL. di Stasi,


figure in art. We tend to think of it as mostly erotic.
Eros absolutely moves behind the sight of the nude
human body, but its lusty significanceis not the only
one in art. The truth is, when it is only eroticits significance is
least powerful. The Aphroditeof Euripides’Hippolytus, with all her awesomepower, was fully dressed. In
Greece the remarkable initiation of fit male
nudity, which really originated in a rite, religious
context, developeda special societal and civil meaning.
It becamea costume,a uniform:exercisingtogetherin
the gymnasia marked guys’s status as citizens of the
polis and as Greeks. On the vases, this is how youthful
men were shown.
Female figuresshown nakedin people, on the other
hand, were typically entertainers. Girls depicted
as exposed were broken, stripped of their clothes,
and in dreadfuldanger,as vulnerableand unguarded
before a male attacker as Athenian law thought
them to be in life. Clothes distinguishes men from
animals. This differentiation continues to be valid in Classical
Greek artwork for girls (thoughnot for guys). Polyxena,
and Iphigeneia, naked by the altar, are about to be
sacrificedlike creatures.
The perspective of nakedness among differs,
often contrasting sharply with that of mainland
Greece in the Classical period, and allows us to see
more certainly, perhaps,just how unique the Greekconcept and customwere. Hebrews and Romans made a
Assortment of adjustmentsto contain-in a small waythe ancient ideal of Greek male nudity and of the
gymnasia in their artwork and in their life. The Gauls’ custom of fightingnakedwas remarkedon as “foreign”by
the Greeks. In Etruria, and in Italy, female nudity
and the picture of the nursing mom still mark the
power of the mothergoddess,as they did in the Mediterraneanbefore Greek artwork prevailed.
In Classical antiquity, so, the contrast between the clothed and the nude human body was
used to express some of the most basic contrastsof the
human encounter:God and man, human and creature,
Guy and woman, public world and privatelife

Mal Occhio:The Undersideof Vision(San Francisco1981),
with review by A. Burgess, TLS, 4 September 1981, 999;

Cultural studies professionals have long debated the signication of clothes and
the means in which they signify sensuality, sexuality, status, in addition to the ethos
and codes of creation of garments, consumption, the operations of ideas of
belonging in the subscription to fashion styles — all in all, the manners in which
Garments represents. Investigations of granny beach pic and fashion have often treated the
‘Nude’ body as though it really is prior to rendering besides in its depiction in art,
Porn, advertising and other media. The discussions in art history and people
World parlance over the differences between naked and bare are moot points
when seen through a post structuralist lens. Kenneth Clark (1956) indicates
that aesthetic portrayal — high art — has the skill to depict the naked as nude,
as if ‘nude’ is another kind or style of clothing, leaving behind ‘naked’ as
disrobed. Treating the nude body this way ignores how it’s consistently already
Signified and constrained by codes of behavior, contexts, differentiation from
the clothed body, loose signications and cultural rituals. Although nakedness is
most often performed during, with or alongside practices of sexuality, it appears